A comparative study on weak anion exchangers was performed to investigate the pH dependence, binding strength, particle size distribution, and static and dynamic capacity of the chromatographic resins. The resins tested included: DEAE Sepharose FF, Poros 50 D, Fractogel EMD DEAE (M), MacroPrep DEAE Support, DEAE Ceramic HyperD 20, and Toyopearl DEAE 650 M. Testing was performed with five different model proteins: Anti-FVII mAb (immunoglobulin G), aprotinin, bovine serum albumin (BSA), Lipolase (Novozymes), and myoglobin. Retention showed an expected increasing trend as a function of pH for proteins with low pl. A decrease in retention was observed for some resins at pH 9 likely due to initiation of deprotonation of the weak anion-exchange ligands. Expected particle size distribution was obtained for all resins compared to previous studies. Binding strength to weak anion-exchange resins as a function of ionic strength depends on the specific protein. Binding and elution at low salt concentration may be performed with Toyopearl DEAE 650 M, while binding and elution at high salt concentration may be performed with MacroPrep DEAE Support. Highest binding capacities were generally obtained with Poros 50 D followed by DEAE Ceramic HyperD 20. A general good agreement was obtained between this study and data obtained by the suppliers. Verification of binding strength trends with model proteins was achieved with human growth hormone (hGH) and a hGH variant on the same resins with different elution salts, sodium chloride, sodium hydrogenphosphate, sodium sulphate, and sodium acetate. Static capacity measurements obtained in the traditional experimental set-up were compared with high-throughput screening (HTS) technique experiments with reasonable agreement. Isotherm data obtained from HTS techniques and pulse experiments were successfully combined with mathematical modelling to simulate, develop and optimise the separation process of two model proteins, Lipolase and BSA. The data presented in this paper may be used for selection of resins for testing in process development. (c) 2007 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Comparison of chromatographic ion-exchange resins VI. Weak anion-exchange resins.
Staby, A., Jensen, R. H., Bensch, M., Hubbuch, J., Dunweber, D. L., Krarup, J., Nielsen, J., Lund, M., Kidal, S., Hansen, T. B., Jensen, I. H.
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Journal of Chromatography A, Vol. 1164, pages 82-94